Azoospermia (a-zoo-SPER-mee-ah) is a major cause of male infertility, when a man’s ejaculate (semen) has no measurable sperm. Normally, the testicles in a man's scrotum produce sperm. The sperm flow through the male reproductive system to mix with fluid to form semen. Semen is the thick, white fluid released from the penis during ejaculation.

Azoospermia is found in five to 10 percent of men evaluated for infertility. The condition may be present at birth or may develop later in life. At Stanford Health Care, we are leaders in azoospemria treatment and sperm extraction. We create a highly personalized treatment plan to help return fertility to our patients.

Types of azoospermia
There are two types of azoospermia

1 Obstructive azoospermia: In this case, there is normal sperm production, but the reproductive tract for both testicles is blocked. This means no measurable sperm can get into the semen. Some patients may have a different problem on each side of the scrotum.

2 Nonobstructive azoospermia: This type is poor sperm production. Men do not produce enough sperm for a detectable amount to show up in their semen. Nonobstructive azoospermia remains challenging to treat, but thanks to advances our doctors and others have developed, we can help restore sperm to the semen in some cases.